Monday, April 19, 2010

So Long, And Thanks for All the Fish

The Aral Sea is just... about...



Gone. Another image of the sea from March 2010:



From the Huffington Post:
The drying up of the Aral Sea is one of the planet's most shocking disasters, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said Sunday, as he urged Central Asian leaders to step up efforts to solve the problem.

Once the world's fourth-largest lake, the sea has shrunk by 90 percent since the rivers that feed it were largely diverted in a Soviet project to boost cotton production in the arid region.

The shrunken sea has ruined the once-robust fishing economy and left fishing trawlers stranded in sandy wastelands, leaning over as if they dropped from the air. The sea's evaporation has left layers of highly salted sand, which winds can carry as far away as Scandinavia and Japan, and which plague local people with health troubles.
The story of the Aral Sea is the sort of thing you want to point to when people argue that technology and human ingenuity will save us from our own self-inflicted crises. The Shrinkage started with the Soviet Union's plan to divert the Amu Darya and Syr Darya to grow a bunch of cotton in the middle of the desert. Hilariously, the Soviets knew the Sea would vanish as a result of this plan - but they did it anyway:
''It was part of the five-year plans, approved by the council of ministers and the Politburo,'' said Aleksandr Asarin, an expert at the Russian State Hydroproject Institute who angered his bosses by predicting, in 1964, that the sea was headed for catastrophe. ''Nobody on a lower level would dare to say a word contradicting those plans,'' he said, ''even if it was the fate of the Aral Sea.''
Apparently Kazakhstan is working to revive what is now the North Aral Sea with some success. There's less hope for the southern sliver of the sea that remains. The water, already so salty as to have been rendered lifeless, continue to recede from the stranded fishing villages and rusting husks of Soviet-era fishing boats that used to subsist on the sea's bounty.

59 comments:

K H D and sometimes T said...

While the whole shebang started off with a bit of environmental consciousness Stalin largely steered things towards the "nature is a beast to be tamed and a resource to be exploited at all costs" mentality. The Aral sea is just the most visible (from space!) and easily graspable remnant in a region dotted with environmental tragedies.

I bet a person could float like crazy in that salty water.

neil said...

I visited the old shoreline from the Uzbek side in 2008: http://www.flickr.com/photos/neilbanas/3312451715/ . My guide, from a town several hours away, told me that in her lifetime the weather in summer has changed by thirty degrees with the sea gone. The old cotton fields we passed on the way have gotten so saline that there's two sets of canals through them: one to supply water, one to carry the water that flows off them away as waste.

Richard said...

Technology and human ingenuity won't save us. Property rights and good old fashioned selfishness will. The Aral Sea tragedy is what happens when you mix socialism (real socialism, not what the Repubs call "socialist", which is just everything they oppose) with authoritorianism. The one-child policy will produce another tragedy in our lifetimes, just you wait and see.

Chachy said...

KHDT/Richard - It is stark because it's so visible and concentrated, that's true. I wonder if you added up all the parking lots in the US, for instance, how much land surface they would consume. As much as the Aral Sea? I don't know. At any rate, all that pavement has amounted just as surely to the obliteration of whatever existed before the bulldozers came through.

I'm no big fan of the Soviet approach to environmental management. But color me skeptical that "old-fashioned selfishness" is the best way to address environmental problems. (Unless you mean, e.g., levying a hefty carbon tax to promote more sustainable behavior...)

ally said...

Fashion is all about lookingwholesale LV handbagsmoncler jackets good and being comfortable at the same time. monclermoncler coatsEvery woman loves being complimentedmoncler t-shirtmoncler vestmoncler outlet for her sense of style and elegance. ugg bootscheap ugg bootsdiscount ugg bootsNo woman wants to be labeled as outdated and old fashioned.ugg classic tall bootsclassic ugg bootsWomen are expected to be in constant touch with the latest trends in ordermoncler jacketsmonclernew moncler coats to adopt those trends and look fashionable and stylish. moncler vestmoncler outletmoncler polo t-shirtWomen need to make sure that whatever they wear, coach outletcoach handbagscoach bagsit should compliment their personality and they do not feel awkward while wearing it. coach totescoach outletlouis vuitton handbagsAn article about Gothic costume clothing and the importance of choosing Gothic choker. LV handbags 2010Louis Vuitton bagsLouis Vuitton totesThis article explores the wide variety of Gothicrain boots
rainweardiesel jeans chokers available from everyday to special occasions. Ture Religion Jeanslevis jeansabercrombie and fitch outletIt should inspire people to go shopping for their own Gothic chokers. ed hardy wholesaleed hardy outletcheap ed hardy wholesaleThe origins of the Flat cap span discount ed hardy wholesalewholesale ed hardy

buy viagra said...

viagra online
generic viagra

home for sale costa rica said...

Hi, i'm really interested in this post...I want to know more about "So Long, And Thanks for All the Fish".

Thats exactly what I was searching in this time...

Thanks!!!

healthy sharing said...

Considerably, this post is really the sweetest on this notable topic. I harmonise with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your incoming updates. Saying thanks will not just be sufficient, for the phenomenal clarity in your writing. I will directly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates. Admirable work and much success in your business dealings!.Please excuse my poor English as it is not my first tongue. free download music

tiffanyuk said...

Every hermes bag
is a section of art that is handcrafted appropriate from the time of acid the leather and even bond up the hermes wallets
. hermes constance
are admired as a aggregate of account and admirable appearance.
There are numerous successful anti-obesity pills such as daidaihua
that aid pounds burning. lida slimming
makes weight loss easy and quick. Though there may be enormous companies introducing slimming capsule
. This is exactly what slimming capsules
do. Also there is no need to cut down on food while you are taking lida
regularly. lida daidaihua
detoxify your body thereby expelling all the harmful toxins in your body.
Tiffany
has inspired many to follow the lead of these jewelry makers. You'll find that there is a reason that the Tiffany rings
have been so popular for the last century, of which the silver rings
was a part. The thing that will distinguish a Tiffany earrings
from the normal desk lamp is its beautiful lampshade.
Chanel bags
are fabricated to top standards in their colors, sizes, and shapes. If you are searching for in a Chanel bag
, it can advice you atom the complete from the fake. China is a cogent architect of affected and Chanel Wallet
.

tn requin said...

sleeping bag
tablecloth
travel luggage
car gps
car parts
GPS navigation
portable GPS
lcd tv
flat tv
digital picture frames
unlocked cell phones
wedding dresses
wedding jewelry
chaussures mode
chaussures Femmes
women's shoes
round tablecloth
discount handbags
chaussures sport
chaussures pas cher
fashion bedding
id lanyard
lanyard
creative gadgets
gift ideas
kids wall stickers
wall stickers
bath curtains
kitchen faucet
bathroom faucet

Eye-catching Herve Leger dress said...

Moncler
moncler jacket
moncler jackets
moncler jacken
moncler branson
moncler online shop

herve leger dress
bandage dress
herve leger

Dsquared2 clothing
Dsquared sneakers for women
Dsquared2

Moncler Zapatos
Moncler Botas
moncler

led said...

Christian Louboutin Tall Boots
Christian Louboutin Wedges
Christian Louboutin Pumps
Christian Louboutin Sandals
Jimmy Choo Shoes
Moncler Kid's Jackets
Moncler clothing wholesale
Wholesale Moncler Jackets
discount Moncler Jackets
http://www.shopmoncler.hk/moncler-jackets
http://www.utsource.net/BUK444-500B.html
http://www.utsource.net/MG50Q6ES41.html
http://www.utsource.net/UM150CDY-10.html
http://www.utsource.net/MP7002.html
http://www.utsource.net/TMS320F2812PGFA.html
http://www.utsource.net/CEM3374.html
http://www.utsource.net/2sj74.html

dfadf said...

Microsoft Office
Office 2010
Microsoft Office 2010
Office 2010 key
Office 2010 download
Office 2010 Professional
Microsoft outlook
Outlook 2010
Windows 7
Microsoft outlook 2010

weddingdresses said...

Are you preparing Christmas gifts for your loves ,family and friends now ?
Maybe you can choose us , we always provide the excellent quality products and best after-sale service ,

And recently we have a active promotions :Happy Shopping at Dec,
the content of preference:
10%~15% discount
a Christmas gift
Free shipping!

we are accept paypal ,credit card and western union for payment .
New arrival :Power Balance
winter boots
power balance bracelet
Silly Bands
Reebok Easytone
reebok zigtech
efx bracelet
Moncler Jackets

Luxury ZONE said...

top sites to buy from
Movado Watch
Baby Carriers
power balance
winter boots
ecco shoes
Bakugan Toys

ferragamo shoes said...

the information of this post is very relevant
for what i am looking for, thank you so much for sharing this one

люстры said...

Cool video!

justin bieber said...

Thank you for another essential article. The Aral sea is just the most visible (from space!) and easily graspable remnant in a region dotted with environmental tragedies.

glenda regan said...

Juicy Couture Clothes
juicy couture Tracksuit
Juicy Couture Sandals
Juicy Couture Earrings
Juicy Couture Flip Flops
Juicy Couture Bracelets
Juicy Couture Purse
Juicy Couture Swimwear
Juicy Couture T-Shirt
Juicy Couture Sunglass
Dsquared Clothes
Dsquared Shoes
Dsquared Belt
Dsquared Cap
Dsquared Hoodies
Dsquared Jeans
Dsquared Suit
Dsquared Sport Pants
Dsquared Shirt
Dsquared Polo
Dsquared T-shirt
Dsquared Swimwear
Tommy Hilfiger Clothes
Tommy Hilfiger T-Shirt
Tommy Hilfiger Polo
Tommy Hilfiger Jeans
Tommy Hilfiger Sweater
Tommy Hilfiger Flip Flops

abercrombiefitch said...

the iconic sneaker was originally introduced on now.
Nike Air Max 2011
Nike Air Max Shoes
Nike Air Max
Nike Air Max Wildwood Supreme
Nike Air Max Turbulence
Nike Air Max Skyline
Nike Air Max Goadome
Nike Air Max Fitsole
Nike Air Max Zenyth
Nike Air Max Boots
Nike Air Max Zoom Kobe
Nike Air Max Tn
Nike Air Max LTD
Nike Air Max Presto
Nike Air Max BW
Nike Air Max 24 7
Nike Air Max 2010
Nike Air Max 2011
Nike Air Max 2009
Nike Air Max 95
Nike Air Max 91
Nike Air Max 87
Nike Air Max 180
Nike Air Max Griffey Max 1
Nike Air Max 90
Nike Air Max 1
Abercrombie and Fitch London
Abercrombie & Fitch Clothes
Vibram Shoes
Cheap Air Max
Nike Air Max Shoes
is available in a vivid array of colors, including, Jiffy Black, Pigeon Grey, Shell White, Dodger Blue, and Beaver Brown.

costa mesa chiropractor said...

The sea's evaporation has left layers of highly salted sand, which winds can carry as far away as Scandinavia and Japan, and which plague local people with health troubles.

costa mesa chiropractor said...

The sea's evaporation has left layers of highly salted sand, which winds can carry as far away as Scandinavia and Japan, and which plague local people with health troubles.

Sinus headache said...

Your post is really good providing good information Baby ear infection Prevent prostate cancer Prevent prostate cancer Lemon tea healh benefits Lemon tea healh benefits Prevent candida yeast infection Prevent candida yeast infection Health benefits of papaya Health benefits of papaya Benefits of peppermint oil Benefits of peppermint oil Stop hiccups Stop hiccups Water and weight loss Water and weight loss Wart Removal Wart Removal Health benefits of oatmeal
Benefits of tea tree oil Common digestive system diseases and disorders Health benefits of saltHealth benefits of salt Prevent wrinkles naturally Tighten sagging skin Dry skin patches treatmentDry skin patches Get rid of acneGet rid of acne Driving tips Migraine headache remedies Migraine headache

newport coast homes for sale said...

The story of the Aral Sea is the sort of thing you want to point to when people argue that technology and human ingenuity will save us from our own self-inflicted crises.

oakley radar said...

Oakley sunglasses outlet is of the worldwide popularity.Here you can find out great wholesale discount of oakley radar sunglasses and oakley frogskins with all the latest styles.
Oakley sunglasses outlet is of the worldwide popularity.Here you can find out great wholesale discount of oakley radar sunglasses and oakley frogskins with all the latest styles.
Oakley sunglasses outlet is of the worldwide popularity.Here you can find out great wholesale discount of oakley radar sunglasses and oakley frogskins with all the latest styles.

luck said...

Not Only The Appearance, Design, But Also The Inspiring Of The Master,The Nike Shoes Us Are The First Class Sports Shoes. Buy Nike Shoes From Us Which Will Keep The Smell Mesh Go Such As Air Max Griffey 1.Many Female People Also Like Various Sports, And They Are Crazy On Such Good Nike Shoes. Nike Air Max Shoes. With A Major Unit In The Heel Hovercraft That Is Visible From The Side Of The Tongue In Most Models To Avoid Injuries And Longevity! Your Feet, Will Keep Dry And Comfortable.Action For The Cheap Air Max. I Am Happy To Know That You Have Read The Article.Now I Belive That You Will Like The Following Fashion Shoes We Provide For You.Don't Hesitate To Choose The Christian Louboutin Outlet Online As Well As The Christian Louboutin Discount Which Have The Unique And Well-Designed Shoes Favored By The World, Signed With The Christian Louboutin Red Soles Of The Mark, Giving High Heels And Covetable Accessories.Hurry Up!We Will Change You Into A Gorgeous Girl! Most Important,The Product We Provide Are All Fashionable As Well As High Quality Elegant Shoes.No Tax And Fast Delivery As Well As Good Customer Service.Just Do It.Our Blog Provide More Details: http://www.christianlouboutin-outlet-online.net/blog/wp-admin/edit.php

ghd uk said...

If you are the proud owner of a Chi flat iron, then you may also need to know the right method for fixing this brand if it went wrong. Generally all types of irons demand regular cleaning and maintenance to keep it going in good condition. If you want to increase the life expectancy of your Chi hair straightener, you should always clean it regularly and if it stops working, you should be aware of how to fix it perfectly to get going. Here we provide with some of the important tips and preventions that you need to know about your Chi styling tool.ghd uk Always prevention is better than cure and so if you can prevent your straightening iron from becoming damaged more often, you can save the money and effort for fixing it every now and then.ghd hair If you love your flat iron and wish to use it longer, then you should always take good care of your Chi styler. Remember not to immerse it in water and never store it near to water like in your bathroom as water can cause it to damage easily.chi for sale Hair straightener if comes in contact with water can also cause shock and other injuries to the user as well.chi sale You should also protect your hair styler from any sharp objects. Flat iron can get damaged by the detangling of its cord that should not be allowed.Ghd Australia By eliminating the misuses, you can keep it away from any damages.Best Hair Straightener presents Only damages cause by manufacturing defects are only covered by warranties.Trying to fix the Chi straightener by yourself can be dangerous if you are not expert in the job.ugg boots clearance Products that work on heat should be handled with care, therefore be careful when repairing the electrical equipments.ghd hair salon If your flat iron has damaged during the warranty period, never try to repair it yourself as it may cancel the warranty. All the professional Chi ceramic models are protected by impressive warranties. You can either return it to the authorized manufacturer - the Farouk Systems or can indirectly deal the case with the dealer who with give it to its manufacturer.

quail hill mortgage brokers said...

The sea's evaporation has left layers of highly salted sand, which winds can carry as far away as Scandinavia and Japan, and which plague local people with health troubles.

muebles madrid en stok said...

Oh my god, there's a great deal of useful material in this post!

New nike soccer shoes said...

Ah good exciting content! Will always come to our attention. To bring you good news-works perfect! Nike Football Cleats best shoes 2011!! And Nike Mercurial Vapor Superfly.Nike soccer cleats with New nike soccer shoes or Nike mercurial soccer cleats .

Anonymous said...

Uncover not at home how with the intention of complete a transpose phone lookup before a phone search or else even a reverse phone lookup number lookup lookup so whilst to uncover out who is trailing to facilitate guise so at what time to has been calling you this entire time ok.

Anonymous said...

Rearrange telephone lookup webpages approximating this one self-control give you every kinds of mobile phone search particulars so to you be able to ultimately find away their name, address, where they be there, reverse phone lookup their current age with to a impressive extent added. So whilst you require with the intention of waste a cellular phone number search in the present day, barely complete definite with the intention of use this supportive tool that locate away every kinds of swap telephone lookup details bringing up the rear with the aim of part at the moment.

Anonymous said...

I enjoy this nice repeal phone lookup before cell phone search or cell phone number search spot. I be able to gather a serious amount of cell phone lookup things on swap phone lookup here in the present day whilst I check away this guide here.

www.muebles.pl said...

Quite worthwhile data, thanks for your post.

Ugg Classic Boots said...

UGG has set a boot sensation around the globe. People of all ages and profession are becoming intrigued with one of these sheepskin footwear in the land here. In the past, the sheepskin boots were first of all worn by shepherds for defense against the inclient weather.UGG Outlet However, it's thought these flat soled fur-lined boots have managed to get in to the leading edge world of fashion since war aircraft pilots put on due to the fact to have their ft warm in high altitudes along with the viewers make use of the boots to warm-up their ft following a chilly dip in to the sea.Cheap Ugg UK Undeniably, ugg footwear experience again worldwide people' s hidden adoration for casual style and comfort in ultimate.Like a mainstay of fashionable UGG selection, UGG shorts boots are not going anywhere soon.Ugg Classic Boots They're comfortable and in addition, they keep the ft totally dry.Ugg Classic Boots Due to the fact happen to be produced in Australia and therefore are completely constructed of sheepskin. Every UGG devotee will find assorted types of calf shaft height in a number of dimensions and colours.ugg classic boots And 2010 trends are noticed the solely style short sheepskin footwear the following. Check thi out very quickly.UGG Classic Short Boots: This style conveys an easy but classic feel.uggs clearance consists of Genuine Australia sheepskin and made of woll material that may keep your ft dry and warm since it's character, and it is Avoi outsole signed UGG Logo design offers lighweight comfort.Discount Uggs Boots Therefore,The sleek yet sleek appearance is globally outfitted up women of any age around the world. a pleated skirt or other tight pants is going to be extremely popular this season.gh uk You may also alter your thing by putting on the cuff up or lower with Classic Short UGG.Ugg Boots Outlet They'd look wonderful with a set of the brand new skinny jeans that are very popular this winter months.Uggs Bailey Button Boots: This is actually a sublime version among fashionable ugg collections.Babyliss Hair Straightener Much like so completely different from classic Uggs due to their attractive side split and distinctive wooden UGG button.Bailey button uggs really are a lovely soft shade which will opt for partically anything inside a woman's wardrobe and therefore are an ideal color for that cold several weeks around. Babyliss Hair Straightener
Ghd Australia

lynn said...

great blog

phlebotomy training said...

It by no means ceases to surprise me how, making use of small additional digging online, it is possible discover several most special web. It’s irritating that significantly pages like this, aren’t ranked on the top rated when I search with bing about the web, Ive added you to my faves, I also have a buddy, that can genuinely value this article, so ill ship her, a website for your write-up, at the same. I am specific they’ll actually enjoyment from it.

felicity said...

Fascinating article- I must say. I'm glad to have found this blog because I recently entertained the idea that hardly anything is original anymore. thanks very much for the share...
stop pre ejaculation
home treatments for hemorrhoids
easy online business
No.1 Natural Cure From Japan
Proven Natural Cure For Eyes

album foto said...

I think people fear idea management and innovation because there's a significant number of ideas that simply won't plan out.......Nice statement.....keep posting

asuransi pendidikan said...

this day I've been searching for information on various issues, this I found very good and I would like to congratulate you for your work.

design interior jakarta said...

I think that this post is one of the best that i have read in my life, congrats you did a great job,.

perusahaan security said...

the difference between the content spammers and most corporate innovators is that the smaller

jual wine said...

I'm writing to you because I just came across a business that I think has great potential. It lets you save money on almost everything. Make money from almost everything,

coklat valentine said...

If growth is important to a firm, and if growth is dependent on offering existing products and services to new customers

belajar internet marketing said...

innovation is very natural and happens in the "real world" as new plants and animals colonize new ecological niches.

konsultan perusahaan said...

I wonder how you got so good. This is really a fascinating blog, lots of stuff that I can get into. One thing I just want to say is that your Blog is so perfect

kuliner bandung said...

We generally think most specifically about the risk associated with a new product introduction

how to stay erect said...

I would be aware that as somebody who really doesn’t comment to blogs a lot (in actual fact, this may be my first put up), I don’t think the time period “lurker” is very flattering to a non-posting reader.

Deni BLog said...

Nice sir..

deni blog
Camera Review
Android

Moncler Sale said...

Among the various colors of Uggs Online boots, some dark colors which can be matched with other colors are favored by more people, which is also Cheap Uggs Online an expression of economy principle. I really believe the Buy Uggs Online will have a bright future!The last piece of the detail for the designs of the women s snow Buy Uggs boots is hollowed element. My mother would consider many things including the price and the quality. Moncler Sale But this style can also dominant the heart of the modern girls. With a stupid look, snow boots are full of legendary, since they can be popular with people all over the world. At that time she taught me at home and I could memorize many poems.Moncler Jackets Sale Then, the design along with the axes of the knee high note with three buttons to the relief available to allow for very expressive versatility type statement. Moncler Online Shop Tall UGG bootsThe chain Classic Tall boot provides ease and fashion, even in the worst of the winter time.

Agen Bola said...

Considerably, this post is really the sweetest on this notable topic. I harmonise with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your incoming updates.

ken said...

From a town several hours away, told me that in her lifetime the weather in summer has changed by thirty degrees with the sea gone.Hollister UK

Plumber Luton said...

Great job man.

Foto Ilham Smash said...

Kata-Kata Mutiara
Mutiara Kata Indah
Kata Mutiara
Kata Mutiara Bijak
Kata Mutiara CInta
Kata Bijak
Kata-Kata bijak
Kata-Kata Mutiara bijak
Harga Notebook
Ultrabook Notebook Tipis
Notebook Tipis Murah Terbaik
Ultrabook Notebook Terbaik
Ramalan Zodiak
Zodiak hari ini
Zodiak
Cara Membuat Surat Lamaran
Contoh Surat Lamaran
Contoh Surat Lamaran Kerja

qinbincai123 said...

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?Thou hidh81ke art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May.And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.
Cheap New Era Hats
New Era 59fifty Hats
New Era 59fifty caps
New Era Hats Wholesale
Cheap Hats

InfoNewbi | Download dan Ebook said...

ZayCoel
Memperbaiki power supply komputer
cara mudah membuat jaringan komputer
memperbaiki hardisk
cara merawat laptop agar awet tahan lama
Download Ebook Komputer
Tips Mudah Cara Membersihkan Monitor LCD
Toko Online Ebook Komputer Terpercaya Garansi 100%
Download Ebook Mmperbaiki Komputer
Ebook Cara Memperbaiki Komputer dan Laptop

Download smadav terbaru gratis
download corel draw x5 gratis terbaru
Download coreldraw x6 terbaru Full Gratis
Download Avast Terbaru 2013 Gratis
Download Kaspersky Terbaru
Download Aplikasi Android Terbaru Populer
Download Mozilla Fire Fox Terbaru
Download Kakao Talk For Android

Cara Mudah Agar Cepat Hamil
Cara Root Android Dengan Mudah
kata indah
Spesifikasi dan Harga Smartfren andromax i

sumabawa said...

Baca Komik Manga Online Terbaru
Cara Mudah Memperbaiki Motherboard
Cara Edit Foto Menjadi Gambar Kartun
Memperbaiki Monitor LCD
Cara Memperbaiki Printer
Cara Belajar Komputer Dengan Benar
Cara Merakit Komputer
Download Photoshop cs 6 terbaru
Edit Foto dengan Photoshop
Download FIlm 5 Cm
Cara Download Video Youtube
Cara Memperbaiki Hardisk
Memperbaiki BIOS
Flashdisk Tidak Bisa Di Format
Download Film Resident Evil 5 Gratis
Harga bb Terbaru

upcoming horror movies said...

I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post.
Hp Ink Cartridge
electrical installation

fajar pakong said...

please visit to
prediksi bola,
cewek sma,
kisah dunia,
hitam putih,
artikel,
Prediksi bola,
Prediksi SGP,
Prediksi HKG,
kata bijak,
lagu terlaris,
Prediksi CHINA4D,
Prediksi Malaysia,
Prediksi Cambodia,
Info Terkini,
Prediksi Laos,
kamu gak rocknroll,
keephearthealthy,
cellulars-phones,
up dater